Rome wasn’t built in a day. And neither was the modern world we live in. The transition of industry 1.0 to 4.0 has been gradual. For starters, it took almost 200 years for the transition, which is still ongoing.

Industry 1.0 to 2.0 happened during the late 19th century. There was a surge in productivity when the industry migrated from steam to shaft-driven electric power. Interestingly, it led to the advent of assembly lines and unions.

The unionized workers played their part in bringing democracy of power to themselves, instead of letting the government and corporations boss them around.

In the middle of the 20th century, the transition from Industry 2.0 to 3.0 happened, enabled by brute computing power. Banking was democratized & manufacturing became efficient and flexible with the advent of outsourcing.

The 21st century brought us to the cusp of Industry 4.0 when data/computational power got integrated with the physical world. This, along with cloud computing, led to a paradigm shift and we’re now staring at the Internet of Things (IoT) and artificial intelligence (AI). Mobile phones can be thought of as the first example, given radically it changed the world around us!

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